He was named in honour of Saint Peter and Saint Paulbecause he was born on their solemnity. The family returned to Cologne the next year. Religion figured prominently in much of his work, and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting  he had said "My passion comes from the heavens, not from earthly musings".
They failed to effect that assimilation of the Italian manner which they sought, and they brought to naught any promise which may have feebly inhered, in the old Gothic style.
It remained then for the seventeenth century to witness the creation of new and idiomatic styles in Holland, Belgium, France and Spain. It will be noted that, with the partial exception of Frans Hals, we still have to do with Italianism, but at last with an Italianism critically studied by first-class painter intelligences who could admire without copying, holding fast to their own native and racial ideals.
The reader need not be reminded that in the first quarter of the seventeenth century Italy offered to the Transalpine painter two competitive styles - the style of Titian and his later Venetian contemporaries; versus the style of Caravaggio.
A man of painterlike spirit would reject the synthesis of the Italian eclectics, They were draughtsmen rather than painters. So the influence of the Carracci and their followers remained in abeyance till a great artist who was not a painterlike spirit, Nicolas Poussinutilized it to the full.
The radical difference between the Venetian style and that of Caravaggio may be expressed in a few antitheses. The former valued aristocracy and nobility of sentiment; the latter, character and the expression of the drastic emotions of common folk.
Similarly, the Venetians emphasized richness and variety of colour and used it most decoratively; the tenebrists reduced colour to light and dark and half-tones, cared little for decorative effect, sought, above all, powerful construction and emphatic rendering of character.
Now a fully decorative and colourful manner has to surrender something of character and construction, while a manner that insists on construction and character must forego something of colour and decorative effect.
Such a style will tend to be a sort of strenuous draughtsmanship in light and dark. Such was the early manner even of Rubens, and even more notably that of Velazquez and Rembrandt. The good painter will naturally seek to minimize the sacrifice involved in his choice of styles.
Thus a Rubens, whose propensity is chiefly for colour and decoration, will also seek to express all the character that is compatible with his aims, and a Rembrandt and a Velazquez will sublimate the once harsh means with which they achieved character and construction, so that their later work will be almost entirely decorative, while rejecting the usual decorative conventions.
The great movement in painting briefly sketched above was merely one chapter in that chronicle of high adventure which was lived in the early years of the seventeenth century. It was a moment of extravagance and expansion in many directions, The English were settling America, the Dutch the East Indies; Ameican gold was enriching Spain.
Francis Bacon discovers the true method of experimental science; Kepler solves the riddle of the solar system; Grotius lays the foundations of international law; Descartes plays havoc with the traditional philosophies; a French gentleman keeps fit with a duel a week.
Genius of all sorts was in the air, and a prophetic spirit a generation earlier might have read what was impending in the writings of such free spirits as Rabelais and Montaigne.
In art this moment of elation and hopefulness is most fully expressed in the painting of Peter Paul Rubens. He represents the conservative and social aspect of the new movement as Rembrandt may be said to represent its radical and individual aspect.
While Rubens was a cosmopolitan person, painting in France, Spain and England, most of his career was made in the imperial city of Antwerp. When Holland had become Protestant and France was torn by religious wars, what is now Belgium remained Catholic and an isolated outpost of the Holy Roman Empire.
|Peter Paul Rubens | Biography, Style, & Facts | leslutinsduphoenix.com||Oil on wooden panel ,5 cm x cm Peter Paul Rubens — was the most admired painter of his day in Europe. His merits are undeniable:|
|Marie de' Medici cycle - Wikipedia||However, even after Louis came of age at thirteen inthe queen continued ruling in his stead.|
|Peter Paul Rubens | Biography, Style, & Facts | leslutinsduphoenix.com||Antwerp, Belgium Flemish painter and diplomat The Flemish painter and diplomat Peter Paul Rubens was one of the supreme geniuses in the history of painting. Jan Rubens was a lawyer of Antwerp who, because of his religious preference, fled to Germany in to escape persecution.|
|It’s here: the NEW Britannica Kids website!||Though his masterpieces include portraits and landscapes, Rubens is perhaps best known for his religious and mythological compositions. His powers of invention were matched by extraordinary energy and versatility.|
It had commercial and cultural relations with all Europe, but the leading influence was from Italy. Its art was much coloured by that Neo-Catholic style which is grouped under the term baroque. Baroque Art Primarily, baroque means extravagant, and the extravagance of the new style was enlisted to bolster up the shaken authority of the Roman Catholic Church and to glorify its champions, the emperor and a host of Catholic monarchs.
The style originated in Italy drawing its precedents widely from such painters as MantegnaMichelangeloTintorettoand the later Mannerist artists. Surprise, unexpectedness, an operatic expansiveness, were its leading characteristics.
Baroque architectureretaining the old fundamental symmetries, plays audaciously with the details.
Pediments are interrupted in the centre; heavy moldings unexpectedly break the line; the surfaces are crowded with decorative high reliefs or with figure sculpture. The normal limitations of materials are ignored. Rushing, marble figures balance perilously or even take wing; we have curtains cut in stone or more thriftily modeled in plaster.
In easel painting, the old closed compositions calculated with regard to the geometry of the frame tend to lead past the frame into the air.
In mural design the wall and the roof are often painted away under the same principle of overflow. Clouds bearing alluring angelic or saintly figures hover above the astonished worshipper; he no longer looks up to a structural vault, but into a fantastic cloudland. Foreshortening, which for High Renaissance artists had been functional, is now used for its own sake as a mere display of supreme technical skill.
Compositional lines are no longer a balance of right lines and easy curves but become taut, spiraling curves of short radius. Nothing is very personal or specific in this art.
Its mood is generalized, animated, operatic, conventionally joyous and energetic. It is this tinge of the theatrical in the baroque which made the older puristic critics, such as John Ruskincriticize it for insincerity.
These same qualities have made it seem exemplary to later generations of critics, who are carried away by its sheer ingenuity.An Introduction to the Life of Peter Paul Rubens PAGES 2.
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Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. Peter Paul Rubens was a Dutch artist, who rose to become one of the most influential Baroque painters of his generation.
This biography profiles his childhood, life, painting career, achievements and leslutinsduphoenix.com: Helene Fourment, Isabella Brant. Peter Paul Rubens was born to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelinckx on June 28, Jan Rubens was a lawyer of Antwerp who, because of his religious preference, fled to Germany in to escape persecution.
In Cologne, Germany, he had an affair with the wife of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and Died: May 30, Sir Peter Paul Rubens (/ ˈ r uː b ən z /; Dutch: [ˈrybə(n)s]; 28 June – 30 May ) was a Flemish artist.
He is considered the most influential artist of Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens' highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. Peter Paul Rubens was born to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelinckx on June 28, Jan Rubens was a lawyer of Antwerp who, because of his religious preference, fled .
Peter Paul Rubens (–) was the most admired painter of his day in Europe. His merits are undeniable: very few artists have succeeded in transmitting an optimistic vision of life as convincingly as he has, or have been as successful in bringing us closer to an ideal of human excellence.