He graduated from the University of Salamanca in and in received a doctorate in canon law. He taught briefly in Osunaand then returned to Salamanca to study civil law. In he joined the government service as a lawyer. Among other positions in Spain, he held that of auditor general of the galleys.
In Noli Me Tangere I started to sketch the present state of our native land. But the effect which my effort produced made me realize that, before attempting to unroll before your eyes the other pictures which were to follow, it was necessary first to post you on the past.
So only can you fairly judge the present and estimate how much progress has been made during the three centuries of Spanish rule. Rizal, center beside Marcelo H.
Del Pilar and other Filipinos in Madrid, Spain, Like almost all of you, I was born and brought up in ignorance of our country's past and so, without knowledge or authority to speak of what I neither saw nor have studied, I deem it necessary to quote the Annotation to morga of an illustrious Spaniard who in the beginning of the new era controlled the destinies of the Philippines and had personal knowledge of our ancient nationality in its last days.
It is then the shade of our ancestor's civilization which the author will call before you If the work serves to awaken in you a consciousness of our past, and to blot from your memory or to rectify what has been falsified or is calumny, then I shall not have labored in vain.
With this preparation, slight though it be, we can all pass to the study of the future. Governor Antonio de Morga was not only the first to write but also the first to publish a Philippine history.
This statement has regard to the concise and concrete form in which our author has treated the matter. Father Chirino's work, printed at Rome inis rather a chronicle of the Missions than a history of the Philippines; still it contains a great deal of valuable material on usages and customs.
The worthy Jesuit in fact admits that he abandoned writing a political history because Morga had already done so, so one must infer that he had seen the work in manuscript before leaving the Islands. By the Christian religion, Doctor Morga appears to mean the Roman Catholic which by fire and sword he would preserve in its purity in the Philippines.
Nevertheless in other lands, notably in Flanders, these means were ineffective to keep the church unchanged, or to maintain its supremacy, or even to hold its subjects. Great kingdoms were indeed discovered and conquered in the remote and unknown parts of the world by Spanish ships but to the Spaniards who sailed in them we may add Portuguese, Italians, French, Greeks, and even Africans and Polynesians.
The expeditions captained by Columbus and Magellan, one a Genoese Italian and the other a Portuguese, as well as those that came after them, although Spanish fleets, still were manned by many nationalities and in them went negroes, Moluccans, and even men from the Philippines and the Marianes Islands.
Three centuries ago it was the custom to write as intolerantly as Morga does, but nowadays it would be called a bit presumptuous. No one has a monopoly of the true God nor is there any nation or religion that can claim, or at any rate prove, that to it has been given the exclusive right to the Creator of all things or sole knowledge of His real being.
The conversions by the Spaniards were not as general as their historians claim. The missionaries only succeeded in converting a part of the people of the Philippines.
Still there are Mahometans, the Moros, in the southern islands, and negritos, igorots and other heathens yet occupy the greater part territorially of the archipelago.
Then the islands which the Spaniards early held but soon lost are non-Christian-Formosa, Borneo, and the Moluccas. And if there are Christians in the Carolines, that is due to Protestants, whom neither the Roman Catholics of Morga's day nor many Catholics in our own day consider Christians.
It is not the fact that the Filipinos were unprotected before the coming of the Spaniards. Morga himself says, further on in telling of the pirate raids from the south, that previous to the Spanish domination the islands had arms and defended themselves.
But after the natives were disarmed the pirates pillaged them with impunity, coming at times when they were unprotected by the government, which was the reason for many of the insurrections. The civilization of the Pre-Spanish Filipinos in regard to the duties of life for that age was well advanced, as the Morga history shows in its eighth chapter.
The islands came under Spanish sovereignty and control through compacts, treaties of friendship and alliances for reciprocity. By virtue of the last arrangement, according to some historians, Magellan lost his life on Mactan and the soldiers of Legaspi fought under the banner of King Tupas of Cebu.
The term "conquest" is admissible but for a part of the islands and then only in its broadest sense. Cebu, Panay, Luzon Mindoro and some others cannot be said to have been conquered.
The discovery, conquest and conversion cost Spanish blood but still more Filipino blood. It will be seen later on in Morga that with the Spaniards and on behalf of Spain there were always more Filipinos fighting than Spaniards.Feb 01, · Sad to say, many students of Philippine history are unfamiliar with Rizal's annotated Historical Events of the Philippine Islands by Antonio Morga.
This book is available in English published by the National Historical Institute, Manila, YAP/TAZ-Dependent Reprogramming of Colonic Epithelium Links ECM Remodeling to Tissue Regeneration.
Antonio de Morga Sánchez Garay ( – July 21, ) was a Spanish lawyer and a high-ranking colonial official for 43 years, in the Philippines ( to ), New Spain and Peru, where he was president of the Audiencia for 20 years. He was also a historian. Sucesos De Las Islas Filipinas Events in the Philippine Islands by Antonio de Morga Published in in Mexico One of the most important works on the early history of .
Annotation To Morga S Sucesos De Las Islas Filipinas Dr. José Rizal's annotation of Antonio Morga's "Historical Events of the Philippines" In , Dr. José Rizal spent several months in London first, to do his historical research on pre-colonial Philippines and .
Jose Rizal's annotations to Morga's Philippine History Governor Antonio de Morga was not only the first to write but also the first to publish a Philippine history. This statement has regard to the concise and concrete form in which our author has treated the matter.
Father Chirino's work, printed at Rome in , is rather a.