Those represent the direct costs of fossil fuels; money paid out of pocket for energy from coal, natural gas, and oil.
Radon Occurrence Throughout the entire Earth, the naturally occurring element uranium is found in at least trace amounts. This element is naturally radioactive and with time, the uranium decays into several other elements called "daughters"one at a time.
Each time a transformation into a new element takes place, the atom is said to undergo "decay".
During each decay, energy is released from the atom. The released energy is collectively given the term "ionizing radiation" and the atom is said to exhibit "radioactivity".
Radon is unique from the other uranium decay products because it is a gas and as a gas, it is capable of migrating from the location of the original uranium atom into the surrounding soil gas. Worldwide, an average of about two radon atoms are emitted from every square centimeter of soil everywhere on the Earth every second of every day 1.
It is for that reason that virtually every house on the planet always has had radon, and will always have radon occurring in the home. Humans have been breathing radon gas since the dawn of Man.
During its decay, it releases a "large" atomic alpha particle Disadvantages of soil pollution the atom is transmuted into polonium. An alpha particle is essentially an helium atom stripped of its electrons. It is at this point that the real hazards associated with radon are encountered.
For it is not the radon which is responsible for the health problems, but rather the short lived radon daughters SLRDs and their decay products, such as the alpha particles. The radon may be thought of merely a source and a vehicle for the SLRDs. There are several different kinds isotopes of naturally occurring radon.
Typically, when we speak of radon, we are speaking of radon which has an half life of 3. This means that if a volume of radon is sealed into a container and left on its own, half of the radon will decay into SLRDs and be gone in four days. However, because of a peculiar trick of physics, proving that God has a sense of humor, the last radon atom may never decay and there exists a finite probability that it could last indefinitely Once the radon atom decays, it subsequently undergoes four rapid decays starting with polonium which decays into leadwhich decays into bismuthwhich decays into polonium Each of these daughters has a half life of less than 30 minutes the polonium has a half life of only 0.
Furthermore, the daughters are electrically charged. The significance of these units will be discussed later. During each decay, at least one of three types of ionizing radiation are emitted by the SLRDs: The alpha particle is easily stopped by a single piece of paper or layer of clothing.
The fact that it is easily stopped speaks to the issue of its "linear energy transfer" or LET. Since the alpha particle is large and easily stopped, the alpha particle transfers virtually all of its energy to the material which has stopped the particle.
Beta particles have less probability of being stopped and impart less energy into the stopping material. The gamma radiation is similar to X-rays and has an even lower probability of being stopped. Since the radon is airborne, these daughters have a high probability of being airborne.
If the daughters are inside the lung when they decay, the lining of the lung wall becomes the stopping material. Since the alveolar cells of the lung wall do not have a significant protective coating, an alpha particle can collide with the live cell, imparting an enormous amount of energy to the cell, possibly disrupting the DNA within the cell.
When a daughter is airborne, it has an electrical charge associated with it and it has an higher probability to adhere to other airborne particulates and dust. When the daughters adhere to airborne particulates, it is said to be "attached. Ironically, where dust levels are high, the risks from elevated radon are lower than in dust free areas with the same radon level.If soil is polluted, a farmer might not be able to grow any crops on it.
The land would be worthless for farming. The pollution might kill any crops he tried to grow. The pollution . Radon: Truths and myths. Prelude.
A large portion of the general population is under the misconception that the frequently published risks associated with radon are well accepted scientific facts. Soil testing can be extensive or basic. Each type of test, such as a soil nitrate test, ranges from $10 to $20 in cost. Screening tests for toxins and environmental cation tests .
The environmental impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by chemicals from mining processes.
Besides creating environmental damage, the contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals also affects the health of the local population.
. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to plants for their growth and maturity. Irrigation water is supplied to supplement the water available from rainfall and the contribution of soil .
Soil pollution is defined as the contamination of soil in a particular region. It is mainly caused due to the seepage of harmful pesticides and insecticides which brings about deterioration in the soil quality and making soil contaminated and unfit for later use.