Strauss and Howe base the turning start and end dates not on the generational birth year span, but when the prior generation is entering adulthood. A generation "coming of age" is signaled by a "triggering event" that marks the turning point and the ending of one turning and the beginning of the new. For example, the "triggering event" that marked the coming of age for the Baby Boom Generation was the Assassination of John F. This marked the end of a first turning and the beginning of a second turning.
But fabricated stories posing as serious journalism are not likely to go away as they have become a means for some writers to make money and potentially influence public opinion. Even as Americans recognize that fake news causes confusion about current issues and events, they continue to circulate it.
Much of the fake news that flooded the internet during the election season consisted of written pieces and recorded segments promoting false information or perpetuating conspiracy theories. While much has been written about fake news, scholars have published a limited amount of peer-reviewed research on the topic.
Concern over the problem is global. However, much remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to manipulations by malicious actors. A new system of safeguards is needed. Below, we discuss extant social and computer science research regarding belief in fake news and the mechanisms by which it spreads.
Fake Fashion cycle and theories has a long history, but we focus on unanswered scientific questions raised by the proliferation of its most recent, politically oriented incarnation.
Beyond selected references in the text, suggested further reading can be found in the supplementary materials. Drawing on audience data, archives of fact-checking websites, and results from a new online survey, we find: Psychological Science, September Because misinformation can lead to poor decisions about consequential matters and is persistent and difficult to correct, debunking it is an important scientific and public-policy goal.
Persistence was stronger and the debunking effect was weaker when audiences generated reasons in support of the initial misinformation.
A detailed debunking message correlated positively with the debunking effect. Surprisingly, however, a detailed debunking message also correlated positively with the misinformation-persistence effect.
Journal of Experimental Political Science, One reason for this persistence is the manner in which people make causal inferences based on available information about a given event or outcome.
As a result, false information may continue to influence beliefs and attitudes even after being debunked if it is not replaced by an alternate causal explanation. We test this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm adapted from the psychology literature on the continued influence effect and find that a causal explanation for an unexplained event is significantly more effective than a denial even when the denial is backed by unusually strong evidence.
This result has significant implications for how to most effectively counter misinformation about controversial political events and outcomes.
British Journal of Political Science, Refuting rumors with statements from unlikely sources can, under certain circumstances, increase the willingness of citizens to reject rumors regardless of their own political predilections. Such source credibility effects, while well known in the political persuasion literature, have not been applied to the study of rumor.
Though source credibility appears to be an effective tool for debunking political rumors, risks remain. Attempting to quash rumors through direct refutation may facilitate their diffusion by increasing fluency. The empirical results find that merely repeating a rumor increases its power.
Facts mingle with half-truths and untruths to create factitious informational blends FIBs that drive speculative politics.
We specify an information environment that mirrors and contributes to a polarized political system and develop a methodology that measures the interaction of the two. We do so by examining the evolution of two comparable claims during the presidential campaign in three streams of data: We find that the web is not sufficient alone for spreading misinformation, but it leads the agenda for traditional media.
We find no evidence for equality of influence in network actors. The use of social media in such situations comes with the caveat that new information being released piecemeal may encourage rumors, many of which remain unverified long after their point of release.
Little is known, however, about the dynamics of the life cycle of a social media rumor.Most alert and thoughtful senior marketing executives are by now familiar with the concept of the product life cycle. Even a handful of uniquely cosmopolitan and up-to-date corporate presidents. The fashion cycle is the amount of time it takes a fashion trend to emerge, peak and fall out of style.
Many factors such as culture, religion, war and society determine how long a specific trend spends in the fashion cycle. The average fashion cycle is one year. The fashion cycle begins when a. Transcript of FASHION CYCLES AND THEORIES. Introduction The way fashion changes is described as a fashion cycle.
The fashion cycle is usually depicted as a bell- shaped curve encompassing five stages: Introduction, Rise in popularity, Decline in popularity, and Rejection. FASHION CYCLE AND THEORIES 1.
Introduction of a Style. Theories of fashion distribution all have in common the identification of leaders and followers. The fashion leader often transmits a particular look by first adopting it and then communicating it to others. activity during the second half of the eighteenth century that led to increased consumption and the speeding up of the fashion cycle.
The original goal that ultimately led to this volume was the construction of "motivic cohomology theory," whose existence was conjectured by A. Beilinson and S. Lichtenbaum. Theories About Atlantis.
Plato. The greek philosopher, Plato, brought to the world, the story of the lost continent of Atlantis. His story began to unfold for him around B.C. He wrote about this land called Atlantis in two of his dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, around B.C.
Plato stated that the continent lay in the Atlantic Ocean near the Straits of Gibraltar until its destruction.