The dual degree program will enable students to earn both a MALD from Fletcher and an MBA from the China Europe International Business School in two and one half years, which is less time than would be required if each degree were sought separately. For this purpose, each school will credit certain coursework from the other school towards its degree.
The former, which are considered higher status, are controlled by the state and issued by universities on behalf of the responsible ministry; the latter are controlled and granted by the universities themselves.
Since the implementation of the Bologna Process in France, things are going towards a simplification: The recognised degrees fall in three levels, following the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area. These are the licence first cyclemaster second cycle and doctorat third cycle.
It is not an academic degree but a government licensing examination that future doctors, dentists, teachers, lawyers solicitorsjudges, public prosecutors, patent attorneys, and pharmacists have to pass in order to be eligible to work in their profession.
Students usually study at university for three to six year, depending on the field, before they Mald thesis the first Staatsexamen.
The main reasons for this change are to make degrees internationally comparable, and to introduce degrees to the German system which take less time to complete German students typically took five years or more to earn a Magister or Diplom.
Some universities were initially resistant to this change, considering it a displacement of a venerable tradition for the pure sake of globalization.
However, universities had to fulfill the new standard by the end of Enrollment into Diplom and Magister programs is no longer possible. However, programs leading to Staatsexamen did usually not make the transition to Bologna degrees.
Doctorates are issued with various designations, depending on the faculty: Multiple doctorates and honorary doctorates are often listed and even used in forms of address in German-speaking countries.
However, sometimes incorrectly regarded as a degree, the Habilitation is a higher academic qualification in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland that allows further teaching and research endorsement after a doctorate.
It is earned by writing a second thesis the Habilitationsschrift or presenting a portfolio of first-author publications in an advanced topic. The exact requirements for satisfying a Habilitation depend on individual universities. Some German universities no longer require the Habilitation, although preference may still be given to applicants who have this credential, for academic posts in the more traditional fields.
The school leaving qualification attained by students is called the Leaving Certificate. It is considered Level on the framework. This qualification is the traditional route of entry into third level education.
There are also Level 5 qualifications in certain vocational subjects e. After gaining the diploma one can enter university and enrol in any curriculum e.
This tied together in a three-level system both the new qualifications introduced as part of the Bologna process and the older, pre-Bologna qualifications, and covers qualifications from university institutions and higher education institutions for fine arts, music and dance AFAM institutions.
These do not give access to the PhD. The Diploma di specializzazione, which is offered in a few specific professions, takes two to six years and gives the title of specialista. The Diploma di perfezionamento is a university certificate, aimed at professional training or in specific study fields, which usually takes one year; it is not allocated a level on the framework.
These are one year and two year qualifications respectively and may be offered at second cycle or third cycle level, distinguished by adding I or II after the qualification name. Higher Schools for Language Mediators offer the Diploma di mediatore linguistico, a first cycle degree taking three years ECTS creditswhich gives access to the laurea specialistica.
Education in the Netherlands In the Netherlandsthe structure of academic studies was altered significantly in when the " Tweefasenstructuur " Two Phase Structure was introduced by the Dutch Minister of Education, Wim Deetman.
With this two phase structure an attempt was made to standardise all the different studies and structure them to an identical timetable.
Additional effect was that students would be persuaded stringently to produce results within a preset time-frame, or otherwise discontinue their studies.
The two phase structure has been adapted to a bachelor-master structure as a result of the Bologna process. Admission[ edit ] In order for a Dutch student to get access to a university education, the student must complete a six-year pre-university secondary education called " voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs " vwo.
There are other routes possible, but only if the end level of the applicant is comparable to the two levels is access to university education is granted.
For some studies, specific end levels or disciplines are required, e. People 21 years old or older who do not have the required entrance diplomas may opt for an entrance exam for being admitted to a higher education curriculum. In this exam, they have to prove their command of disciplines considered necessary for pursuing such study.
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