In the movie Outbreak infection control is used to show positive and negative outcomes. Standard precautions are used to provide someone with precautions and awareness to prevent the spread of diseases and infections. For example washing your hands when needed.
ShareCompartir With the approaching release of the movie ContagionI thought it would be appropriate to post my cheat sheet on how to investigate a disease outbreak. Aspiring disease detectives take notes! Hollywood has done their best to Outbreak lab essay what an outbreak is…but here are the facts.
An outbreak, or epidemic, occurs when there are more cases of disease than would normally be expected in a specific time and place. Either way, we need to investigate to determine why it is happening and how to prevent other people from getting sick or dying.
Outbreaks are usually noticed by an astute clinician, such as those who first noticed AIDS in New York City and San Francisco, but there are also many high tech disease detection systems available to help us spot any increase in illness.
PulseNet is a laboratory network that uses PFGE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to help identify foodborne outbreaks by monitoring the genetic make-up of the bacteria causing what may otherwise look like unrelated illnesses.
In the recent events of the Salmonella outbreak in ground turkey, PulseNet and the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System helped identify the cause of the outbreak as well as determine how widely it had spread. Programs such as Biosense and Outbreak lab essay Watch monitor the chief complaint or reason that someone called or went to the hospital aka syndromic surveillance.
We also monitor news media for reports of outbreaks and websites such as Google Flu trends, which tracks circulating viruses and illnesses. With new technology ordinary citizens can also increasingly report outbreaks in their communities too. The Magic Formula So how do you figure out the who, what, when, and where of a disease outbreak?
When we investigate outbreaks they are often in urgent situations with patients and their families wanting immediate answers and the news media asking why we are not working hard and fast enough. This can be a lot of pressure when you are trying to make sure you gather all the clues and piece them together properly.
Determine an outbreak is occurring seems obvious, I know Too often an initial suspicious outbreak is just lots of different illnesses that are being confused for the same thing or an error from the lab or other monitoring system.
So the first step involves lots of listening and then asking some basic questions: Is this an increased number for this area, time of year, or age group? Are the cases linked to a common source or agent? Keep in mind that a change in disease monitoring, laboratory diagnostics, reporting requirements or even increased publicity might affect the number of cases reported without accurately reflecting a true disease outbreak.
How many cases are there? This is where the Sherlock Holmes part of being a disease detective gets turbocharged with leading edge laboratories that should best be called CSI-CDC. Now that we have confirmed an outbreak, we need a case definition not very sexy but critical Photo courtesy of Kendra Helmer, USAID All of the information we gathered in Step 1 allows us to piece together the person, place, and time aspects of the outbreak to develop a case definition for who we think is likely to be part of the outbreak.
With a case definition we can ask if there are commonalities among all the cases. For example, are people of a certain age, race, ethnicity, location, occupation, underlying medical condition, or travel itinerary affected by this? The case definition will create a standardized method for identifying past, present and future cases.
It should include clinical information, characteristics of those with the disease, and geographic and timing information about the cluster of cases. A good case definition starts out very inclusive so as not to miss any potential cases that do not have the typically identified symptoms.
As the investigation continues for an unknown disease, this definition may become more restricted to ensure we focus on persons who truly have the illness of concern. When the SARS outbreak occurred inthe case definition continually changed as we learned more about the disease, its manifestations, and transmission patterns.
It started very general as a type of pneumonia, and then the definition became more specific when the transmission method and symptoms were further identified and finally a lab test was developed by CDC. Get a clue often better known as throwing darts This is the same step we learned in grade-school for coming up with a scientific hypothesis.
That is essentially what we do in an investigation.
We use information about those who are ill, in addition to knowledge about existing diseases, and some intuition to determine a plausible hypothesis. This is when listening and close observation comes in handy to identify the public health misadventure that led to the outbreak: The leap of faith testing the hypothesis While the earlier steps are often about the art of epidemiologythis step is all about the science.
Once we establish who is ill we need to find the factor that is causing them to become infected or poisoned. A common way of conducting epidemiological studies studying the patterns and causes of disease is through a case-control study, where identical surveys or lab data are collected from those who are ill and those who are not.
We then see if there are factors that are significantly not due to chance different in cases vs. For example, in a multi-state outbreak of a rare but serious parasitic eye infection, Ancathamoeba Keratitisan interview was conducted with both cases and controls regarding a myriad of factors that scientists thought might be implicated in the occurrence of the disease mainly among contact lens wearers.
After the questionnaires were completed, an analysis was run and sure enough, certain variables were strongly associated with an increased number of cases. One brand of contact lens solution was recalled from the market because a significantly higher number of cases used this solution.
Accurately identifying the risk factor allows us to put in place the appropriate prevention method.Free outbreak papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your In this essay I intend to look at all the points and eventually come to a verdict on who was to blame for the outbreak of war in plastic bags marked ‘Infectious.’ As the epidemic grew, lab technicians treating infected individuals realized these bags were not.
Please follow the below guideline for the outbreak report of Typhoid in Tajikistan. OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION REPORT WRITING GUIDELINE Introduction [A brief summary of the outbreak/setting the scene (this report is about will discuss this and that and finally summarise key leslutinsduphoenix.come some public health interventions to control outbreak].
Principles of Outbreak Investigations • Be systematic! – Follow the same steps for every type of outbreak – Write down case definitions • Obtain medical records and lab reports – Contact Public Health Epidemiologist in Hospital & Infection Preventionists • Conduct clinical testing if needed – Consult with CD Branch, State Lab.
Outbreaks This Essay Outbreaks and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on leslutinsduphoenix.com Autor: review • November 19, • Essay • Words (2 Pages) • Views The lab tech that was dealing with the blood wasn't paying attention to what he was doing and the blood .
Guidelines for Writing a Final Outbreak Investigation Report West Virginia Bureau for Public Health Division of Infectious Disease Epidemiology Revised September, Page 2 of 2 o Cases Demographic data - Results of laboratory testing Environmental.
Outbreak The virologists determined the identity of the virus causing the disease by taking blood samples from the people who were sick or who were getting sick, .