The reflection on the process of orientalism according to edward said

Hellenistic religion and Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In Late AntiquityHermetism [18] emerged in parallel with early ChristianityGnosticismNeoplatonismthe Chaldaean Oraclesand late Orphic and Pythagorean literature. These doctrines were "characterized by a resistance to the dominance of either pure rationality or doctrinal faith. These post-Christian Greek texts dwell upon the oneness and goodness of God, urge purification of the soul, and defend pagan religious practices such as the veneration of images. Their predominant literary form is the dialogue:

The reflection on the process of orientalism according to edward said

If the concentration was on one object, Dhyana is non-judgmental, non-presumptuous observation of that object. Dhyana is uninterrupted train of thought, current of cognition, flow of awareness. It is a composite of three terms, namely dhyai, upasana "dwelling upon"and bhavana "cultivating".

An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination [19] The origins of the practice of dhyana, which culminates into samadhi, are a matter of dispute.

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The earliest mention of Dhyana in the canonical Jaina texts simply mention Dhyana as a means of emancipation, but in them ascetic practices are not emphasized nor is the discussion as systematic as in later Jaina texts or Hindu texts such as the Patanjali's Yogasutras. Speak the truth, not the untruth.

Look at what is distant, not what's near at hand. Look at the highest, not at what's less than highest.

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The fire is meditation dhyanathe firewood is truthfulness satyathe offering is patience kshantathe Sruva spoon is modesty hrithe sacrificial cake is not causing injury to living beings ahimsaand the priestly fee is the arduous gift of safety to all creatures.

Brahma Sutras[ edit ] The Brahma-sutraswhich distills the teachings of the Upanishads and is one of three foundational texts of the Vedanta school of Hinduism, states that Dhyana is not Prativedam or, one for each Vedaand meditation belongs to all Vedic schools.

To change the analogy, the mind is like a lake, and stones that are dropped into it or winds raise waves. Those waves do not let us see who we are. The waters must be calmed. If one remains quiet, eventually the winds that ruffle the water will give up, and then one knows who one is.

God is constantly within us, but the mind obscures that fact with agitated waves of worldly desires. Meditation quiets those waves Bhagavad Gita V. Twenty-fifth—Anniversary Edition [49] Dhyana along river Ganges in Varanasi leftOm in Tamil script as an instrument for meditation right.

The reflection on the process of orientalism according to edward said

Meditation in the Bhagavad Gita is a means to one's spiritual journey, requiring three moral values — Satya truthfulnessAhimsa non-violence and Aparigraha non-covetousness.

The yoga of knowledge and intellectual endeavor Bhakti Yoga: The yoga of meditation sometimes called Raja yoga or Ashtanga yoga The Dhyana Yoga system is specifically described by Krishna in chapter 6 of the Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna. Dharana is a state of mind, Dhyana the process of mind.

The reflection on the process of orientalism according to edward said

Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes actively engaged with its focus. Patanjali defines contemplation Dhyana as the mind process, where the mind is fixed on something, and then there is "a course of uniform modification of knowledge". Shankara gives the example of a yogin in a state of dharana on morning sun may be aware of its brilliance, color and orbit; the yogin in dhyana state contemplates on sun's orbit alone for example, without being interrupted by its color, brilliance or other related ideas.

It is a part of a self-directed awareness and unifying Yoga process by which a world that by default is experienced as disjointed, comes to be experienced as Self, and an integrated oneness with Brahman.

In Yogasutras, the term implies fixing one's mind on an object of meditation, which could be one's breath or the tip of one's nose or the image of one's personal deity or anything of the yogi's choice.

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Yoga SutrasIII: In deeper practice of the technique, the mind concentrated between the eyebrows begins to automatically lose all location and focus on the watching itself.

This step prepares one to begin the practice of Dhyana. Dhyana[ edit ] The Yogasutras in verse 3. This state is called Dhyana".

Dhyana is distinct from Dharana, in that the yogi contemplates on the object of meditation and the object's aspects only, free from distractions, with his mind during Dhyana.

With practice, the process of Dhyana awakens self-awareness soul, the purusha or Atmanthe fundamental level of existence and Ultimate Reality in Hinduism, the non-afflicted, conflictless and blissful state of freedom and liberation moksha.In the 5 th century BC, Greek Historian Herodotus wrote about the customs and traditions he witnessed while in Babylon.

One of the more controversial customs he reports on is the Babylonian marriage market in which young women were gathered up and an “auctioneer would get each of the women to stand up one by one, and he would put her up for sale”. Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("thrice-greatest Hermes").

These writings have greatly influenced the Western esoteric tradition and were considered to be of great importance during both the Renaissance and the Reformation.

The tradition claims descent from a prisca. New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.

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