Overview Union flag In the presidential electionRepublicansled by Abraham Lincolnsupported banning slavery in all the U. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery.
Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies".
Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than casualties,  while others further specify that at least must come from each side. This includes civil wars; however, no specific definition of civil war is provided in the text of the Conventions. Tanks in the streets of Addis Ababa after rebels seized the capital during the Ethiopian Civil War Nevertheless, the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventionsnoting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows: That the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory.
Causes According to a review study of civil war research, there are three prominent explanations for civil war: Scholarly analysis supports the conclusion that economic and structural factors are more important than those of identity in predicting occurrences of civil war.
The study framework, which came to be called the Collier—Hoeffler Model, examined 78 five-year increments when civil war occurred from toas well as 1, five-year increments of "no civil war" for comparison, and subjected the data set to regression analysis to see the effect of various factors.
The factors that were shown to have a statistically significant effect on the chance that a civil war would occur in any given five-year period were: When disaggregated, only petroleum and non-petroleum groupings showed different results: The authors of the study interpreted this as being the result of the ease by which primary commodities may be extorted or captured compared to other forms of wealth; for example, it is easy to capture and control the output of a gold mine or oil field compared to a sector of garment manufacturing or hospitality services.
The study interpreted these three factors as proxies for earnings forgone by rebellion, and therefore that lower forgone earnings encourage rebellion.
However, for this to be true, one would expect economic inequality to also be a significant factor in rebellions, which it is not. The study therefore concluded that the economic model of opportunity cost better explained the findings. Only ethnic dominance, the case where the largest ethnic group comprises a majority of the population, increased the risk of civil war.
A country characterized by ethnic dominance has nearly twice the chance of a civil war. However, the combined effects of ethnic and religious fractionalization, i. The study interpreted this as stating that minority groups are more likely to rebel if they feel that they are being dominated, but that rebellions are more likely to occur the more homogeneous the population and thus more cohesive the rebels.
These two factors may thus be seen as mitigating each other in many cases. He disagrees with the quantitative research methods of Collier and believes a stronger emphasis should be put on personal data and human perspective of the people in conflict.
Beyond Keen, several other authors have introduced works that either disprove greed vs. Authors such as Cristina Bodea and Ibrahim Elbadawi, who co-wrote the entry, "Riots, coups and civil war: Revisiting the greed and grievance debate", argue that empirical data can disprove many of the proponents of greed theory and make the idea "irrelevant".
Anthony Vinci makes a strong argument that, "fungible concept of power and the primary motivation of survival provide superior explanations of armed group motivation and, more broadly, the conduct of internal conflicts". Commitment problems may deter a lasting peace agreement as the powers in question are aware that neither of them is able to commit to their end of the bargain in the future.
Walter argues that when these issues are properly reversed, they act as political and legal restraints on executive power forcing the established government to better serve the people. Additionally, these political and legal restraints create a standardized avenue to influence government and increase the commitment credibility of established peace treaties.
Both of these factors favor rebels, as a population dispersed outward toward the borders is harder to control than one concentrated in a central region, while mountains offer terrain where rebels can seek sanctuary. The study had two possible explanations for this: The elapsed time may represent the depreciation of whatever capital the rebellion was fought over and thus increase the opportunity cost of restarting the conflict.
Alternatively, elapsed time may represent the gradual process of healing of old hatreds. The study found that the presence of a diaspora substantially reduced the positive effect of time, as the funding from diasporas offsets the depreciation of rebellion-specific capital.
He found that polygyny greatly increased the frequency of civil wars but not interstate wars. They argued that misogyny is a better explanation than polygyny. Through her studies of the Salvadoran Civil WarWood finds that traditional explanations of greed and grievance are not sufficient to explain the emergence of that insurgent movement.
Wood also attributes participation in the civil war to the value that insurgents assigned to changing social relations in El Salvadoran experience she defines as the "pleasure of agency".
In 19th-century Europe, the length of civil wars fell significantly, largely due to the nature of the conflicts as battles for the power center of the state, the strength of centralized governments, and the normally quick and decisive intervention by other states to support the government.
Following World War II the duration of civil wars grew past the norm of the preth century, largely due to weakness of the many postcolonial states and the intervention by major powers on both sides of conflict.
The most obvious commonality to civil wars are that they occur in fragile states. This meant that whoever had control of the capital and the military could normally crush resistance.
A rebellion which failed to quickly seize the capital and control of the military for itself normally found itself doomed to rapid destruction. For example, the fighting associated with the Paris Commune occurred almost entirely in Parisand ended quickly once the military sided with the government  at Versailles and conquered Paris.
The power of non-state actors resulted in a lower value placed on sovereignty in the 18th and 19th centuries, which further reduced the number of civil wars. For example, the pirates of the Barbary Coast were recognized as de facto states because of their military power.The Civil War in the New York Times The New York Times Complete Civil War, Edited by Harold Holzer and Craig L.
Symonds Black Dog & Leventhal Publishing, , $40 It is no stretch to say the New York Times was the nation’s most powerful newspaper during the Civil War.
The paper’s youthful founder and editor, Henry Jarvis Raymond. Watch video · When the American Civil War () began, President Abraham Lincoln carefully framed the conflict as concerning the preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery.
Roughly 1,, American soldiers have died in the nation's wars, in the Civil War and , in all other conflicts. It was only as recently as the Vietnam War that the amount of American deaths in foreign wars eclipsed the number who died in the Civil War.
After expanding its mission in to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of , the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May , operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust. Sep 16, · Description. Test your history knowledge in the newest strategy MMO with a realistic American Civil War theme TRAIN massive armies of Civil War cannons, go to war with thousands of REAL players, form powerful alliances and develop your own military strategies/5(K).
In , his books on the Korean War won him a “Korean Wave” award from South Korea's National Assembly, and in , he was made a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II.